Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and a major cause of disability worldwide. In the United States, CVD accounted for 34.4 percent of the 2.4 million deaths in 2003 and remain a major cause of health disparities and rising health care costs. In 2006, health care spending and lost productivity from CVD exceeded $400 billion. The aging population, obesity epidemic, underuse of prevention strategies, and suboptimal control of risk factors could exacerbate the future CVD burden. Increased adherence to clinical and community-level guidelines and renewed emphasis on policy, environmental, and lifestyle changes will be crucial for its effective prevention and control.